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South Carolina:
By Kevin Philips and Daniel Pennicott
Geography:
South Carolina is located on the east coastal plain between North Carolina and Georgia, with the Atlantic Ocean to the east. The colony of South Carolina contains the Santee River, the Savannah River, and the Great Pee Dee River, the Edisto River, and the Combahee River. The Blue Ridge Mountain which is part of the Appalachian Mountain chain takes up the western side corner of the state. This colony also includes the Sassafras Mountains which is the highest point in the state. South Carolina also includes the Piedmont Mountain. The major harbor of South Carolina was the Charleston harbor which was the site of the Patriots first major victory.
The Blue Ridge Mountains Blue_Ridge_Mountains.jpg
Agriculture was the basis for South Carolina’s economy. The two chief crops within South Carolina were cotton and rice. Since the soil was so exhausted, farmers were encouraged to employ crop rotation which is a method of interchanging crop fields to keep the soil from being ruined. This will improve the productivity of the land. There were many vegetation systems within the colony such as the streams, pond riparian edge, and red gum-tulip poplar floodplain forest.


How did geography affect your colonies development?
Due to South Carolina’s geography they were able to grow and prosper. The two chief crops they grew were cotton and rice which allowed them to begin their colony. Since South Carolina had an abundance of land they had many plantations which also helped them grow even more cash crops which is a surplus of crops sold on the market for extra money.

History:
In 1521 the Spanish came Carolina but they failed to become a settlement. Then in 1562 French protestants established a settlement also but it was also short lived in the area. Then in 1663 the English colonized
Carolina by eight loyal proprietors of king Charles II. In 1691 The northern and southern parts of the colony become known as North and South Carolina. North and South Carolina are governed as a single unit, but the emphasis is on the southern colony. Then in 1680 Colonists establish Charleston, which becomes the new colonial capital of the British colonies.
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Charleston, South Carolina (Capital of SC)

The main reasons the English came to South Carolina were for economic reasons because England needed more money. Since the english came for economic reasons South Carolina became very economical as well since it took part in the Triangular trade. It imported indentured servants and black slaves, established a plantaion system, supplied navel stores to Britian and conducted fur trade with the bordering Muskogan Indians. How ever South Carolina did have trouble with indians even when they traded with them because they were on their land, and so the colonist were attacked and sometimes killed during Indian raids. Not only was South Carolina economical but they were also political as well.

Economics:
In the 19th century the people of South Carolina used cotton and rice, which was also known as “Carolina gold”, as their chief cash crops in order to survive. The reason why South Carolina became wealthy was because they exported more cash crops than they imported which was also known as mercantilism. Eventually South Carolina became a large leader in terms of industry when the textile industry was introduced in the 20th century.


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Rice

South Carolina’s principal form of commerce was the textile manufacturing industry. The textile manufacturing industry represented twenty five percent of the colonies manufacturing employment.


Slavery was a major part of the survival of South Carolina. The wealthy plantation owners that lived in South Carolina were able to profit due to slave labor. More than half the state’s population between the American Revolution and the Civil War were slaves. Soon the slave trade increased and that resulted as a slave increase to about 1.5 million slaves, then 3.2 million. The type of trade that was used to get the slaves to the colonies was known as triangular trade which was the carrying of Chinese books and cloths from England to the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea, from the Caribbean Sea they would transport sugar back to New England, where it was usually distilled in rum, then they traded the rum and firearms for slaves in West Africa and then carried slaves to the West Indies for more sugar. After the South lost the Civil War the slaves were then granted freedom, the right to vote, and to hold political office during the time of rebuilding the South. Many people in the South were in fear of slave rebellions because the slaves represented half the population. Eventually legislation was passed to limit the activities of free and enslaved Africans. Finally there was the 1st rebellion in the New World which involved one hundred of the slaves that were in South Carolina. This rebellion, which was known as The Stono Rebellion of 1739, but it was put down.
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The Stono Rebellion of 1739

Social:
South Carolina was a British colony, so the main language spoken was English. Other languages that were spoken in South Carolina were German, Swiss, Scottish, and Irish. This also showed that South Carolina was a white dominant colony during colonial times. Also in South Carolina the most religiously based group were the Protestants who dominated England at the time. Lastly the role of women was minimal because they were mostly house wives and took care of the kids.

Political:
In 1663 King Charles II of England granted a proprietary charter in South Carolina to eight of his followers who helped him regain his throne. These people known as the Lord Proprietors were granted lands between Virginia and the coast of Florida by the king. South Carolina was a proprietary colony which was under the control of the Lords Proprietors and their heirs. Since the policy of salutary neglect came into effect, which is the policy of not interfering in the American colonies’ politics and economy so it benefits you, it allowed the proprietary colony of South Carolina grow and prosper under the control of the Lords Proprietors and their heirs.

The colony of South Carolina established a colonial government.


Terms:
1. Triangular Trade- It is the carrying of Chinese books and cloths from England to the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea. From the Caribbean Sea they would transport sugar back to New England, where it was usually distilled in rum. They traded the rum and firearms for slaves in West Africa and then carried slaves to the West Indies for more sugar.triangular_trade.gif2. Salutary Neglect- this was Great Britain’s policy in the early 1700s of not interfering in the American colonies’ politics and economy as long as such neglect served British economic interests.
3. Mercantilism- it was an economic theory that a country should acquire as much gold and silver as possible by exporting more goods than it imports.
4. Great Awakening- it was the religious revival in the American colonies during the 1730s and the 1740s.
5. Cash Crop- it was a crop that was demanded and then grown for sale on the market.
Road To Revolution:
French and Indian War:
During the French and Indian War South Carolina was not really involved because most of the battles took place in the north. After the war South Carolina became more patriotic to its colony and started support the ideas of the revolution because they felt that their rights were being played with.

American Revolution:
During the revolutionary war South Carolina did support the colonial army, but in some areas the colonists were loyalist's. Some of the actions it supported was the Battle at Camden, which South Carolina lost. South Carolina also supported troops at the Battle of Kings Mountain on the Carolina border which they won. There were three main military actions in South Carolina which was the taking of Charleston(1780), the battle of Kings Mountain(1780), and the battle of Cowpens(1781).

The colony of South Carolina was very much affected by the revolution because it was taken by the British when they took Charleston. In fact the state of South Carolina was the first colony to declare its independence and they also supported the creation of the Constitution.

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George Washington crossing the Delaware River

Bibliography:



  • "South Carolina." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 7. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 1446-1447. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 28 Sept. 2010